Combating Feed & Fodder Crisis


India, with its vast population and increasing demand for dairy products, faces a significant challenge in ensuring an adequate supply of feed and fodder for its livestock. The availability and quality of feed directly impact the productivity and health of dairy animals. However, the Centre of Excellence for Dairy Skills in India (CEDSI) is actively working towards raising awareness and providing training to stakeholders in the dairy and allied sectors. CEDSI aims to offer comprehensive advisory services to farmers, empowering them with knowledge and skills for sustainable and efficient dairy farming practices.

Current Feed and Fodder Situation in India:

India’s livestock sector plays a crucial role in the country’s agricultural economy, contributing significantly to income generation and rural livelihoods. However, the inadequate availability and poor quality of feed and fodder pose significant challenges. Livestock farmers often struggle to meet the nutritional requirements of their animals, leading to reduced milk production, health issues, and overall lower productivity.

According to a study by the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD), India faces a shortage of about 62% green fodder, 69% dry fodder, and 36% concentrate feed. This shortage is particularly acute in certain regions such as North India and parts of Central India.

CEDSI’s Initiatives and Impact:

CEDSI recognizes the crucial role of feed and fodder in dairy farming and has undertaken various initiatives to combat the prevailing challenges. Through its comprehensive training and development programs, CEDSI aims to create awareness among farmers about the significance of balanced nutrition and sustainable feed management practices. The organization provides advisory services to farmers, focusing on end-to-end dairy farming practices, including feed and fodder management.

CEDSI encourages farmers to adopt modern techniques such as hydroponics fodder production. Hydroponics allows the cultivation of highly nutritious green fodder using minimal land and water resources. It involves growing fodder crops without soil, using nutrient-rich water solutions. This technique can provide a year-round supply of fresh, nutritious fodder, reducing dependence on traditional cultivation methods.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) also hold great potential in improving feed and fodder management. By analyzing data on crop yields, weather patterns, and livestock requirements, AI and ML can help farmers optimize their feed production and management strategies. These technologies can provide real-time recommendations on crop selection, fertilization, and feed formulation, leading to enhanced productivity and resource utilization.

CEDSI also emphasizes region-specific approaches to address the feed and fodder situation. Collaboration with local agricultural research institutions helps identify and promote fodder varieties that are well-suited to specific agro-climatic conditions. This approach ensures farmers have access to resilient and high-yield fodder options, enhancing feed availability and quality in different regions.

CEDSI’s efforts in addressing the feed and fodder situation in India have yielded significant results. By creating awareness, providing advisory services, and offering training programs, CEDSI has empowered farmers with the knowledge and skills needed to optimize feed and fodder management. As a result, dairy farmers have observed improvements in milk production, animal health, and overall farm profitability.

To further enhance its impact, CEDSI will continue to leverage AI and ML technologies in its advisory services. By integrating data-driven insights, farmers can make informed decisions regarding feed management, leading to more efficient resource allocation and improved animal nutrition.


The feed and fodder situation in India remains a pressing concern for the dairy industry. However, with the active involvement of organizations like CEDSI, there is hope for a better future. By focusing on awareness generation, training, and advisory services, CEDSI is playing a crucial role in promoting sustainable and efficient feed and fodder management practices. Embracing modern techniques like hydroponics fodder production and harnessing the power of AI and ML will further strengthen CEDSI’s efforts, leading to a resilient and thriving dairy sector in India.


India is the world’s largest milk producer, yet the country struggles with low milk productivity compared to its global counterparts. The Centre of Excellence for Dairy Skills in India (CEDSI) recognizes the need to address this issue and is dedicated to playing a crucial role in enhancing milk productivity. In this blog, we will explore the current scenario of milk productivity in India, identify the factors contributing to its deficiency, and highlight how CEDSI’s initiatives can drive positive change. We will also delve into the importance of improving milk productivity and discuss the potential of AI and ML in this context.

Current Scenario and Challenges:

Despite having a significant dairy cattle population, India’s milk productivity lags behind other major milk-producing countries. The average milk yield per cow in India is around 1,500-1,800 litres per year, whereas countries like the United States and European nations achieve yields exceeding 10,000 litres per cow annually. Several factors contribute to this productivity gap.

  • Inadequate nutrition– It is a significant challenge, many dairy animals in India suffer from a lack of balanced and quality feed. Insufficient availability and access to nutritious fodder lead to undernourished animals, resulting in lower milk production.
  • Poor breeding practices– Limited access to superior genetic material affect milk productivity. There is a need to focus on genetic improvement programs, including the promotion of superior bull semen and artificial insemination services.

CEDSI’s Role in Enhancing Milk Productivity

CEDSI is committed to addressing the challenges faced by Indian dairy farmers and improving milk productivity. Through its comprehensive training programs, CEDSI aims to empower farmers with knowledge and skills in modern dairy farming practices, nutrition management, and breeding techniques. By providing advisory services and conducting workshops, CEDSI helps farmers understand the importance of balanced nutrition and optimal breeding strategies to maximize milk productivity.

To tackle the issue of inadequate nutrition, CEDSI promotes the cultivation of high-yield fodder crops, utilization of crop residues, and the adoption of modern feed management techniques. By emphasizing the significance of balanced diets and proper feeding practices, CEDSI guides farmers towards optimizing feed utilization and enhancing milk production.

CEDSI also plays a vital role in promoting superior breeding practices. It educates farmers about the benefits of artificial insemination, encouraging them to access quality bull semen and advanced breeding techniques. By enhancing the genetic potential of dairy animals, CEDSI aims to improve milk productivity and quality.

Livelihood Enhancement – Enhancing milk productivity is crucial for several reasons. Firstly, it directly impacts the income and livelihoods of dairy farmers. By increasing milk yields, farmers can generate higher revenues, leading to improved standards of living and economic growth in rural areas.

Demand -Supply Gap– It would ensure an adequate supply of milk to meet the growing demand. India’s population is increasing, and with it, the demand for milk and dairy products. Enhancing productivity will help bridge the supply-demand gap and reduce dependence on imports.

Increased milk productivity contributes to the overall development of the dairy industry. It enhances the competitiveness of Indian dairy products in both domestic and international markets, boosting the sector’s contribution to the country’s economy.

Leveraging AI and ML for Productivity Enhancement:

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) offer immense potential in revolutionizing milk productivity enhancement. These technologies can analyze large datasets, including milk yield records, genetic information, and environmental factors, to generate valuable insights.

AI and ML can assist in early identification of potential health issues in animals, enabling timely intervention and preventive measures. They can also optimize feeding regimes by analyzing data on animal nutrition, growth patterns, and milk production, resulting in improved productivity.

CEDSI recognizes the transformative power of AI and ML in dairy farming. By integrating these technologies into its training and advisory services, CEDSI can help farmers leverage data-driven decision-making to enhance milk productivity, identify breeding opportunities, and implement targeted management practices.


CEDSI’s commitment to enhancing milk productivity in India is crucial for the growth and sustainability of the dairy sector. By focusing on training, nutrition management, and breeding practices, CEDSI empowers farmers with the knowledge and skills needed to increase milk yields. Furthermore, the integration of AI and ML technologies holds immense potential in transforming dairy farming practices, optimizing productivity, and ensuring a prosperous future for the Indian dairy industry. Together, with CEDSI’s initiatives and technology-driven solutions, we can unlock the full potential of India’s dairy sector and meet the growing demand for milk and dairy products.

Title: Unlocking the Potential of Dairy Entrepreneurship in India: A Path to Sustainable Growth


Dairy entrepreneurship holds immense promise in India, a country known for its rich dairy heritage. However, despite the vast potential, the development of dairy as a thriving enterprise has been relatively slow. In this blog, we explore the current situation, reasons for its underutilization, different areas of dairy entrepreneurship, government schemes for budding entrepreneurs, existing gaps, and the pivotal role that the Centre of Excellence for Dairy Skills in India (CEDSI) can play in bridging those gaps.

The Current State of Dairy Entrepreneurship in India:

India is the largest milk-producing country globally, with a diverse range of dairy products. However, the majority of the dairy sector is still dominated by small-scale farmers, limiting the growth of entrepreneurial ventures. According to recent data, only a fraction of dairy production in India is processed or value-added, indicating the untapped potential of dairy entrepreneurship.

Challenges Hindering Dairy Entrepreneurship:

  • Lack of Knowledge and Skills: Limited technical expertise and inadequate exposure to modern dairy practices hamper the growth of aspiring entrepreneurs.
  • Access to Capital: Insufficient financial resources and limited access to credit restrict the establishment and expansion of dairy enterprises.
  • Infrastructure and Technology Gaps: Outdated infrastructure, inadequate cold storage facilities, and a lack of modern technology hinder the efficiency and scale of dairy operations.
  • Market Linkages: Difficulties in accessing reliable markets and establishing value chains impede the growth and profitability of dairy entrepreneurs.

Different Areas of Dairy Entrepreneurship:

  1. Milk Processing and Value-Added Products: Setting up milk processing units for products like cheese, yogurt, butter, and ice cream.
  2. Dairy Farming: Establishing and managing modern dairy farms for milk production and breed improvement.
  3. Dairy Product Distribution: Building efficient distribution networks for the supply of dairy products to urban and rural areas.
  4. Technology and Equipment: Developing and manufacturing innovative dairy technology and equipment.

Government Schemes Supporting Dairy Entrepreneurs:

  • Dairy Entrepreneurship Development Scheme (DEDS): Provides financial support for setting up modern dairy farms and processing units.
  • Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY): Offers financial assistance for infrastructure development and capacity building in the dairy sector.
  • Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana (PMMY): Facilitates access to credit for micro and small-scale dairy entrepreneurs.

Bridging the Gaps: CEDSI’s Role in Dairy Entrepreneurship:

CEDSI plays a crucial role in bridging the existing gaps and promoting dairy entrepreneurship in India. Here’s how:

  • Capacity Building and Skill Development: CEDSI conducts training programs and workshops to enhance the knowledge and skills of aspiring entrepreneurs, focusing on modern dairy practices, value addition, and business management.
  • Technological Advancements: CEDSI collaborates with research institutions and industry experts to introduce cutting-edge technologies and equipment to improve productivity and efficiency in the dairy sector.
  • Market Linkages and Mentorship: CEDSI facilitates market linkages for budding entrepreneurs, connecting them with potential buyers, processors, and retailers. It also provides mentorship and guidance to help entrepreneurs navigate the challenges of the industry.
  • Advocacy and Policy Recommendations: CEDSI actively engages with policymakers and stakeholders to advocate for supportive policies, reforms, and financial incentives that can foster the growth of dairy entrepreneurship.


Dairy entrepreneurship holds tremendous potential for sustainable growth in India. By addressing the challenges through skill development, access to finance, improved infrastructure, and market linkages, the sector can flourish. With the active involvement of organizations like CEDSI and leveraging government schemes, aspiring dairy entrepreneurs can seize opportunities, contribute to the economy.

Title: Enhancing Milk Productivity: Practical Approaches to Optimize Animal Housing with CEDSI’s Support


Continuing our series on factors that impact milk productivity, we turn our focus to animal housing. Adequate and affordable housing plays a crucial role in the health, welfare, and productivity of dairy animals. The Center of Excellence for Dairy Skills in India (CEDSI) recognizes the significance of optimized animal housing and extends its support to farmers in this regard. In this blog, we will delve into the importance of animal housing, explore the current scenario in India, highlight CEDSI’s role in promoting practical approaches, and discuss affordable ways for farmers to create optimal animal housing.

The Link between Animal Housing and Milk Productivity:

Animal housing has a direct impact on the overall health and productivity of dairy animals. It provides shelter, protects animals from extreme weather conditions, reduces stress, and facilitates proper feed intake. Optimal housing conditions positively influence milk productivity, leading to higher milk yields.

Current Scenario in India and its Impact:

According to the Livestock Census 2019, only around 35% of farmers in India have proper animal housing for their cattle. This means a significant number of dairy animals are still housed in traditional or makeshift structures, which can hinder their well-being and milk productivity.

Inadequate animal housing negatively affects milk productivity in several ways. Poor ventilation and insulation lead to increased heat stress, which can reduce feed intake and milk production. Improper flooring can cause injuries and lameness, affecting cows’ mobility and milk yields. Overcrowding and lack of space limit animals’ comfort, hindering their ability to rest and ruminate efficiently.

CEDSI’s Role in Promoting Practical Approaches:

CEDSI recognizes the need for practical and affordable solutions in animal housing. Through its training programs, CEDSI educates farmers on cost-effective methods to create optimal housing for their livestock.

Shed Design: CEDSI provides guidance on designing animal sheds using locally available materials such as bamboo, thatch, or low-cost roofing sheets. These designs prioritize ventilation, lighting, and space allocation, ensuring a comfortable environment for the animals.

Flooring: CEDSI emphasizes the importance of comfortable flooring materials, which can be achieved through options like sand bedding or rubber mats. These affordable alternatives provide cushioning, reducing the risk of injuries and lameness.

Ventilation: Simple techniques such as installing ridge vents, windows, or low-cost exhaust fans help improve air circulation and regulate temperature inside the shed. Natural ventilation methods, like proper positioning of windows, can effectively reduce heat stress.

Waste Management: CEDSI educates farmers on low-cost methods of waste management, such as composting, which helps maintain cleanliness and prevent the spread of diseases.

Affordable Ways for Farmers to Create Optimal Animal Housing:

Farmers can adopt affordable approaches to create optimal animal housing by utilizing locally available resources:

Utilizing Local Materials: Farmers can leverage locally available materials like bamboo, wood, or recycled materials to construct animal sheds. These materials are cost-effective and environmentally friendly.

Improving Insulation: Farmers can insulate animal sheds using straw or locally available materials to maintain favorable temperatures during extreme weather conditions.

Natural Light and Ventilation: Strategic placement of windows and open vents can maximize natural light and airflow, reducing the need for artificial lighting and ventilation systems.

Efficient Space Utilization: Designing the animal housing layout to optimize space usage ensures that each animal has enough room to move and rest comfortably.

Strategic Drainage Systems: Implementing proper drainage systems within the animal housing area prevents waterlogging, improves hygiene, and minimizes the risk of diseases.

CEDSI’s support in promoting affordable and practical approaches empowers farmers to optimize animal housing within their budgetary constraints, thus improving milk productivity.


CEDSI’s commitment to supporting farmers in creating optimal animal housing through practical and affordable approaches is crucial for enhancing milk productivity. By educating farmers on cost-effective techniques, leveraging locally available resources, and emphasizing the importance of proper housing, CEDSI enables farmers to provide a comfortable environment for their cattle. With improved animal housing, farmers can expect higher milk yields, improved animal welfare, and overall sustainable dairy farming practices.

Title: Enhancing Milk Productivity: Optimal Breed Selection with CEDSI’s Support


Continuing our series on factors that impact milk productivity, we turn our focus to breed selection. Choosing the right breed of cattle is crucial for maximizing milk production and overall dairy farm profitability. The Center of Excellence for Dairy Skills in India (CEDSI) recognizes the significance of optimal breed selection and extends its support to farmers in this regard. In this blog, we will delve into the importance of breed selection, explore the current scenario in India, highlight CEDSI’s role in promoting informed decisions, and discuss the interlinkages between breed selection and milk productivity.

The Link between Breed Selection and Milk Productivity:

The breed of cattle has a direct impact on milk productivity. Different breeds exhibit variations in milk yield, fat content, protein content, adaptability to local conditions, and disease resistance. Selecting the right breed ensures that farmers can maximize milk production and profitability.

State-wise Data on Breed and Productivity (As of 2023)

StateProminent BreedMilk Productivity (Average Daily Yield)
Andhra PradeshOngole6-8 liters
GujaratGir8-12 liters
HaryanaSahiwal8-12 liters
KarnatakaHallikar6-8 liters
MaharashtraJersey10-14 liters
PunjabHolstein-Friesian25-30 liters
RajasthanTharparkar8-12 liters
Tamil NaduKangayam6-8 liters
Uttar PradeshMurrah Buffalo8-12 liters
West BengalRed Sindhi6-8 liters

CEDSI’s Role in Promoting Informed Decisions

CEDSI recognizes the significance of informed breed selection and plays a vital role in educating farmers about different breeds’ characteristics and productivity. Through its training programs, CEDSI provides farmers with knowledge and resources to make informed decisions based on their specific farming conditions and objectives.

CEDSI offers guidance on various factors to consider during breed selection, including milk yield potential, adaptability to local conditions, disease resistance, and overall herd management. This helps farmers select breeds that align with their goals and optimize milk productivity.

Furthermore, CEDSI provides access to breed improvement programs and initiatives. These programs focus on selective breeding, genetic enhancement, and artificial insemination techniques to improve the quality and productivity of indigenous breeds. By leveraging scientific advancements, CEDSI empowers farmers to enhance their herd’s genetic potential and overall milk productivity.


In conclusion, breed selection is a crucial factor in maximizing milk productivity in dairy farming. Understanding the characteristics and productivity of different breeds allows farmers to make informed decisions. CEDSI’s role in promoting informed breed selection through education, access to breed improvement programs, and collaboration with experts greatly supports farmers in optimizing milk productivity. By choosing the right breed and implementing effective management practices, farmers can achieve higher milk yields, improved breed characteristics, and overall sustainability in their dairy operations.

Title: Stress Management: A Key Factor in Enhancing Milk Productivity


In our ongoing series on factors that impact milk productivity, we now turn our attention to stress management. Stress can have a profound effect on dairy animals, leading to reduced milk productivity and compromised animal welfare. Recognizing the significance of stress management, the Center of Excellence for Dairy Skills in India (CEDSI) extends its support to farmers in this crucial aspect. In this blog, we will explore into the relationship between stress and milk productivity, highlight the negative impacts of stress, discuss effective strategies to eradicate stress, and emphasize CEDSI’s role in promoting stress management practices for improved dairy farm productivity.

The Relationship between Stress and Productivity:

In the Indian dairy industry, stress is a prevalent issue that affects milk productivity. Stressors such as heat, inadequate nutrition, poor housing conditions, and improper handling techniques contribute to elevated stress levels in dairy animals. These factors trigger the release of stress hormones like cortisol, which disrupts the animal’s physiological balance and negatively impacts milk production.

Studies have shown that stressed cows can experience a decrease in milk yield by as much as 10-15%. In a country like India, where milk production is a vital part of the agricultural economy, addressing stress and its impact on productivity becomes crucial.

Eradicating Stress for Enhanced Productivity:

Comfortable Housing: Providing well-ventilated shelters with proper flooring, adequate space per animal, and comfortable bedding helps alleviate stress and improve productivity.

Nutritional Management: Ensuring a balanced and appropriate diet, considering the specific nutritional requirements of the animals, promotes their overall well-being and reduces stress levels.

Heat Stress Mitigation: Implementing measures such as sprinkler systems, fans, and shade structures to combat heat stress during hot summer months significantly reduces stress and improves milk production.

Proper Handling and Training: Using low-stress handling techniques, avoiding sudden loud noises or disturbances, and providing appropriate training to animals and farm staff help minimize stress during handling and routine procedures.

Disease Prevention and Health Management: Regular veterinary check-ups, timely vaccinations, and effective disease prevention strategies contribute to reducing stress levels in animals.

Socialization and Exercise: Encouraging social interaction among animals, providing adequate exercise opportunities, and promoting positive herd dynamics helps alleviate stress and promotes overall animal welfare.

Negative Impacts of Stress:

Stress has several negative impacts on milk productivity and the overall well-being of dairy animals. In addition to reduced milk yield, stressed cows are more susceptible to health issues, including metabolic disorders, mastitis, and reproductive problems. Chronic stress weakens the immune system, making animals more prone to infectious diseases, leading to additional economic losses for farmers.

Furthermore, stress affects the behavior and temperament of animals. Stressed cows may exhibit aggressive behavior towards other herd members, causing injuries and disruptions within the group. This can lead to decreased feed intake, further impacting milk production.

CEDSI’s Support in Stress Management:

CEDSI acknowledges the critical role of stress management in optimizing milk productivity and animal welfare. The organization extends its support to farmers through various initiatives and programs.

CEDSI conducts training sessions and workshops, focusing on stress management techniques specific to the Indian context. Farmers are educated about identifying stress indicators, implementing stress reduction strategies, and creating a favorable environment for dairy animals.

CEDSI collaborates with veterinary experts, researchers, and industry professionals to develop stress management guidelines tailored to the Indian dairy sector. These guidelines offer practical insights and recommendations to help farmers effectively manage stressors and improve milk productivity.

In addition, CEDSI promotes the use of advanced technologies and innovative practices to address stress-related challenges. This includes the adoption of precision dairy farming techniques that utilize sensors, data analytics, and automation to monitor animal behavior, feed intake, and health parameters. These technologies help farmers detect early signs of stress, enabling timely interventions and better management decisions.

CEDSI also facilitates knowledge exchange platforms, where farmers can share their experiences, challenges, and success stories related to stress management. These platforms provide valuable insights and encourage the adoption of best practices among dairy farmers.


Stress management is a crucial factor in enhancing milk productivity and ensuring the well-being of dairy animals. With CEDSI’s support, Indian farmers can access the necessary knowledge, resources, and guidance to effectively manage stressors and create a low-stress environment on their farms. By implementing stress reduction strategies, optimizing nutrition and health management, and utilizing advanced technologies, farmers can minimize the negative impacts of stress, improve milk production, and contribute to the overall sustainability of the dairy industry in India. CEDSI’s commitment to promoting stress management practices underscores its dedication to empowering farmers and fostering a thriving and productive dairy sector.

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